Lauritz Bolt Bolt-Jørgensen on anti-Jewish laws in Hungary in 1944



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Shortly after the appointment of the Cabinet Sztojay they announced on the 31st in the Hungarian Government Gazette a couple of decrees containing stricter provisions in the already applicable provisions concerning the position of the Jews in the Hungarian Society, cf. legation report No. 106 of 27.3.42 and later.

In accordance with the first decree (Appendix 1), every Jew, regardless of gender, from the age of 6, outside the home is instructed to wear a tailored canary yellow star of fabric with a diameter of l0 cm on the left chest of the garment. The basis for who is qualified as a Jew is the racial protection law of 1941. This does not apply to Jews who received higher military decoration for participation in the First World War, who are 75 percent war invalids, as well as Jews who have been honoured for their actions during the Hungarian Revolution of 1919 and the relinquishment of state territory from the Little Ententes States after the World War.

By a Decree of the 5th of this month (Appendix 2), the exceptions were expanded to include Jews living in marriages with non-Jews, and widows of non-Jews. The exemptions further include those foreign Subjects living in Hungary who are able to document their foreign nationality through the foreign authorities. The necessary certificate is based on an application submitted by the relevant Foreign Representation.

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In accordance with the Decrees of the 31st (Appendix 1), Jews are prohibited from having non-Jews as housekeepers. The prohibition includes service people of all kinds who perform a regular personal service for money.

Furthermore, the Jews who are employees of the State and Municipal Service as well as the National Bank, Credit Unions, etc. are dismissed. The Authorizations for Jewish Notaries, Interpreters, Jewish Lawyers, etc. expire on 31 May of this year and are excluded from the Attorneys Chambers.

Jews, who are members of the Press Chamber and the Chamber of Performing Arts, must resign before 30 April of this year.

At the same time, Jews who own Motor Vehicles (Passenger Cars, Cargo Trucks, and Motorcycles, etc.) are required to report these to the Ministry of Commerce.

On the 29th they announced a decree according to which Jews have to report their Telephones.

According to a Decree of the 8th ds. The Jews are obliged to report their Radio Devices.

By Decree of the 6th of this month, the Jews who carry the yellow Star are prohibited from using Motor Vehicles, including Taxis. Nor has the before mentioned Jews access to the use of railways, Passenger Ships, and Motor omnibus; special permits for an exemption for a specific time can be given by the police and the gendarmerie.

The Government has taken precautions - which do not take the form of a Decree, but on the 6th of this month, the Budapester Nachrichten Press Service referred to the complete exclusion of Jews from the business community. It is anticipated that all Jewish employment will cease by 1 October.

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On the 16th of this month, a Decree concerning the registration and blocking of the Jews’ fortune was announced (Appendix 3). Hereafter, the Jews must report their total assets to the relevant financial authorities with the exception of their personal home, household items, and clothing, if their total value does not exceed 10,000 Pengö. What you are obligated to notify includes Art objects, Blankets, Table silver, and other Luxury items. In addition to small change, the Jews must also report their land property. Shares and Bonds must, before the notification is made, be deposited in a bank. Jewish bank boxes are blocked, and the Owner must declare their contents. All Jewish claims on savings, Bank Books and Current Accounts are reported and blocked; of these blocked receivables, a total of 1,000 Pengö can be paid monthly to the Owner. The Jews are responsible to transfer their whole salary to a bank or savings bank; these amounts are blocked. The Minister of Industry has the authority to block Jewish trading and industrial companies’ raw material and inventory as well as business inventory.

Enclosed is a cutting of Pester Lloyd of 18 of this month. (Appendix 4), containing the reproduction of some of the statements made by the Secretary of State and the Ministry of the Interior, regarding further impending precautions, including the practice of Jewish doctors and the future conditions of Jewish Settlement in Budapest.

Lauritz Bolt Bolt-Jørgensen (1882-1967)


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The German army occupied Denmark on 9 April 1940. Until 1943, the occupation regime appeared relatively benign: It dominated foreign policy, but allowed the Danish government complete autonomy in domestic affairs, including control of the legal system and police forces. The tone of the German occupation changed in early 1943. Rather than yield to German demands, the Danish government resigned on 29 August 1943. German authorities took direct control of the Danish military and police forces. Othe...


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